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Teknik fotografi selama ini kita kenal menggunakan berbagai kamera. Umumnya kita mengenal kamera berdasarkan jenis dan kualitas. Secara umum, pemahaman kita senantiasa beranggapan bahwa untuk mendapatkan kualitas hasil gambar yang baik adalah dengan menggunakan kamera digital dari jenis SLR atau kamera pocket. Namun sesungguhnya kita tidak menyadari bahwa ada metode pengambilan gambar lainnya yang memanfaatkan fungsi teknologi untuk menyalin imej dan dikenal sebagai scanner.  Selama ini scanner dikenal sebagai alat untuk meng-capture gambar atau merupakan suatu alat yang digunakan untuk memindai suatu bentuk maupun sifat benda, seperti dokumen, foto, gelombang, suhu dan lain-lain. Hasil pemindaian itu pada umumnya akan ditransformasikan ke dalam komputer sebagai data digital.


Dalam Wikipedia,

Pemindai atau scanner merupakan suatu alat yang digunakan untuk memindai suatu bentuk maupun sifat benda, seperti dokumen, foto, gelombang, suhu dan lain-lain. Hasil pemindaian itu pada umumnya akan ditransformasikan ke dalam komputer sebagai data digital. Terdapat beberapa jenis pemindai bergantung pada kegunaan dan cara kerjanya, antara lain:

  • pemindai gambar
  • pemindai barcode
  • pemindai sinar-X
  • pemindai cek
  • pemindai logam
  • pemindai Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
  • pemindai 3 Dimensi

Di antara jenis-jenis pemindai tersebut, pemindai gambar adalah yang paling sering disebut sebagai pemindai.

Seperti halnya pada pemindai OMR, pemindai gambar juga dapat digunakan sebagai pemindai Lembar Jawaban Komputer (LJK). Agar hal tersebut dapat tercapai, dibutuhkan perangkat lunak dengan teknologi Digital Mark Reader (DMR).

Bila dikelompokkan berdasarkan cara memasukkan kertas, pemindai gambar terdiri atas 2 jenis, yaitu:

  1. Flatbed
    Pada pemindai gambar Flatbed, kertas diletakkan di atas kaca pemindai, kemudian lampu dan sensor pemindai akan bergerak menyusuri kertas tersebut untuk memperoleh gambarnya.

  2. Automatic Document Feeder (ADF)
    Pada pemindai gambar Automatic Document Feeder (ADF), kertas diletakkan pada baki/tray, lalu satu per satu kertas akan dimasukkan oleh bagian mekanik pemindai dengan adanya pad assy dan roller. Pada saat kertas bergerak di atas lampu pemindai, sensor pemindai bekerja untuk memperoleh gambar yang merepresentasikan kertas tersebut. Keunggulan pemindai Automatic Document Feeder (ADF) adalah:

    • kecepatannya tinggi, dapat mencapai > 10.000 lembar per jam
    • dapat membaca dua sisi kertas sekaligus pada saat yang bersamaan
    • dengan imprinter, pemindai dapat memberikan tanda pada lembaran yang telah dipindai
    • sangat tepat dipasangkan dengan perangkat lunak berteknologi Digital Mark Reader serta untuk pengarsipan dan manajemen dokumen.

Apa Scanografi itu?

Scannography dikenal juga dengan nama scanography, Scanner Fotography atau Scan-art). Merupakan  sebuah media atau cara untuk merekam gambar yang dapat menampilkan benda-benda dalam bentuk tampilan visual.

In this slideshow you can see random images
of what you can find on the artists pages.
Overfly the image to discover the artist’s name
You can als scroll the bar on theleft of the artists page to find lots of amazing sannographers…

The term is subject to discussions, I choosed the “scannography” with two “n” because I thought it suited with the fact that most scannographers do a real graphic work based on scanner (with two “n”) captured images. Scannography is also the term for medical scanns but that shouldn’t be a contrariety. Some artist prefer “scanography” with one “n” as “scan” is ended with one only.

In the early days of photography it wasn’t considered at all as an Art. It’s up to us to make scannography seen as something special that has it’s place in Fine Arts…

Scannography is near from photography but also very different from it in many points. A few of them are the absence of perspective and of depth of field, the regularity of the light captured by thousands of captors… Some of these points are very different from one artist to the other. The material seeem to have it’s importance too.

One of the most interesting things about scannography is that it is a new way to see the things around us. It’s not macro but can be ! It’s not drawing but has something similar to those documentary drawings done to capture the essence of plants or animals ! It’s not photography but it reproduces the reality with extraodinary precision !

You will discover some artists here (if you are yourself a scannographer and want to be included in those pages please contact me) and some tips and tricks on this site that can help you to catch what scannography is about !

Scanography, also spelled scannography more commonly referred to as scanner photography, is the process of capturing digitized images of objects for the purpose of creating printable art using a flatbed “photo” scanner with a CCD (charge-coupled device) array capturing device. The term scanography formerly referred to medical scanning, but is unrelated in either purpose or technique. Fine art scanography differs from traditional document scanning by using atypical objects, often three dimensional, as well as from photography, due to the nature of the scanner’s operation.[1][2][3]



[edit] History of scanography

The process of creating art with a scanner can be as simple as arranging objects on the scanner and capturing the resulting image; in fact, some early artists in the field worked with photocopiers to capture and print in a single step, resulting in the field of Xerox art.[1] Artist Sonia Landy Smith, artist in residence at 3M and founder of the Generative Systems program at the Art Institute of Chicago was one of the first to exploit this ability in 1968, altering the variables of the photocopying process to produce artwork rather than mere copies.[4]

Using a computer and a photo editor between the scanning and the printing process provides the artist with a greater level of control, allowing, at a minimum, the ability to “clean” the image by removing specks and other imperfections in the capture.[5]

With the increased availability of photocopiers in the 1980s and 1990s, a vernacular form of scanography developed from people making photocopies of body parts, notably their hands, faces, or their buttocks, generally humorously.[6]

Harold Feinstein’s One Hundred Shell and One Hundred Flower series contained scanned images side by side with traditional large format photography. Joseph Scheer scanned moths in Night Visions: The Secret Designs of Moths.[7][8][9] A 2008 exhibition titled “Scanner as Camera” at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia drew eight artists from across the United States whose subjects ranged from scanned and digitally manipulated historic ambrotype and tintype photographs and drawings to dead birds and insects found by the artist.[10]

[edit] The capture process

“Self portrait with scanner” shows the effects of the focused lighting and limited depth of field when using a scanner to capture a 3-D object

Scanners differ significantly from digital camera in many areas. First, the optical resolution of a flatbed scanner can exceed 5000 pixels per inch (200 pixels per mm). Even at a relatively low resolution of 1200 pixels per inch (47 p/mm) a letter sized image would be 134 megapixels in size.

The depth of field of most scanners is very limited, usually no more than half an inch (12 mm), but the built-in light source provides excellent sharpness, color saturation, and unique shadow effects. The time it takes the scanning head to traverse the bed means that scanners can only be used to capture still objects, and common items used are flowers, leaves, and other suitable “still life” subjects.[5]

[edit] Equipment

Using a flatbed scanner to scan items other than paper documents exceeds the original purpose of the scanner, so special care must be taken with the process. The bed of the scanner is typically made of glass, and care needs to be taken that the glass not be scratched or cracked when placing or removing items on the bed. Since the items to be captured are often placed directly on the bed, dust and other particles will often land on the glass, and care must be taken to keep the glass clean. Scanners will also hold only a limited amount of weight, and items that may damage the scanner, such a liquids or items that might scratch the glass, should be placed on a plastic barrier to protect the bed.[11]

The larger the scanner bed, the larger an image may be captured, so scanners with large beds provide the artist with more flexibility than smaller document scanners. Many scanners advertise two resolutions, an optical resolution and a higher resolution that is achieved by interpolation. A higher optical resolution is desirable, since that captures more data, while interpolation can actually result in reduced quality.[11]

Flatbed scanners typically have a hinged cover that covers the bed, and reflects light back into the scan head. This cover is usually removed or propped open when scanning 3-D objects, to prevent damage or compression of the subject. Removal of the cover also allows the artist to use additional light sources positioned above the bed, which can be used to enhance the depth captured by the scanner.[11]

Scanners can also be modified to provide additional capture abilities. For example, the scanner, with the illumination removed or disabled, can be used as a giant CCD replacement, producing a large format digital camera back at a fraction of the cost of professional large format systems. [12][13]

[edit] Techniques

An external light source and a moving subject produce different effects in this image.

The simplest use of the scanner, which also most closely matches its use for document capture, is as a specialized tool for macro photography. As long as the subject can be placed on the scanner bed, the scanner is excellent for capturing very high resolution images, within its limitations.[3]

A common artistic use of the scanner is to capture collages of objects. The objects are arranged by the artist on the scanner bed, and then captured. Since the artist is working from the back of the image, it can be difficult to get the desired arrangement. Scanning software with the ability to generate a low resolution preview scan can help in obtaining the desired arrangement before the final, high resolution scan is made.[11]

Since the subjects are often placed in contact with the scanner, there is a high potential for damage to the scanner from objects scratching or cracking the surface of the bed, or from liquids that might seep from the subject into the interior of the scanner. These risks can be mitigated by placing a layer of transparent protective material, such as clear plastic film, onto the scanner bed. Another approach is to invert the scanner, so the bed is above the subject and not quite in contact with it.[14]

A magnifying glass and CD-ROM discs placed at an angle to the bed show reflection, refraction, and diffraction effects that can be generated.

Capturing a moving subject with the scanner can be viewed as a problem, or as an opportunity for artistic effect. As the subject moves during the scan, distortions are caused along the axis of the scan head’s movement, as it captures different periods of the subject’s movement line by line in a manner similar to slit-scan photography. The artist can use this by aligning the direction of the scan head’s movement to deliberately caused the desired distortion.[15]

[edit] Further manipulation

While the result of a scanner capture provides a work of digital art, just as a digital photograph does, further manipulation of the captured image are possible as well.[3] This may be as simple as flattening the background to enhance the “floating” effect provided by the scanner to complete reworking of the image.[5][3]

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b “Ellen Hoverkamp”. East Coast Artisan. May/June 2006.
  2. ^ Ellen Hoverkamp. “About Ellen”.
  3. ^ a b c d Joseph Meehan (2006). The Magic of Digital Photography: Close-up. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.. ISBN 9781579906528.
  4. ^ David Liss (December 1995). “Photocopy Art: Who Were the Pioneers”. Artfocus Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-03-19.
  5. ^ a b c West Coast Imaging. “Dale Hoopingarner”.
  6. ^ See for example the chalkboard gag from the opening sequence of The Simpsons Season 2, Episode 4 (1990), Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish, which reads: “I Will Not Xerox My Butt” Bart’s Blackboard: I will not Xerox my butt
  7. ^ James A. Cotter (Jul/August/Sept 2003). Joseph Scheer: Confessions of a Moth Man. Photo Insider.
  8. ^ Harold Feinstein (March 1, 2000). One Hundred Flowers. Bulfinch. ISBN 9780821226650.
  9. ^ Harold Feinstein (September 22, 2005). One Hundred Seashells. Bulfinch. ISBN 9780821262061.
  10. ^ “”Scanner as Camera” Opens at Staniar Gallery”.
  11. ^ a b c d Meehan (2006), Chapter 6, “Using the scanner as a close-up camera”, by Ruth Adams
  12. ^ Mike Golembewski. “Earlier Models”.
  13. ^ Mike Golembewski. “My Current Camera”.
  14. ^ Samuel W. Kochansky. Digital Art Workflow: Or how to Avoid Immeasurable Progress. Xlibris. p. 39. ISBN 1-4134-2774-X.
  15. ^ Mike Golembewski. “The Scanner Photography Project”.

Reference/Daftar Pustaka

Christian Staebler, What is scannography?, Diakses tanggal 12 April 2011.

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