ANDI ALDILLAH NAWIR
HAMZAH UPU
SURADI
ABSTRACT
This research was classroom action research was conducted within two cycles which aimed at improving the quality of learning mathematics at topic of quadrilaterals and triangle through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach with cooperative learning setting Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) type. The research subjects were 31 grades VII_{4} Junior High School 1 Bulukumba. The improvement quality of learning includes quality of result and quality of process. Data collection was conducted by using Achievement Test and Observation Sheet. The collected data analyzed by quantitative and qualitative. The results of the action showed that: (1) at first cycle, the average of the students’ score obtained within the learning achievement test was 73,32 of an ideal score 100 with standard deviation 17,775 in which 20 of 31 students or 64,5% satisfied the individual mastery which showed that the classical mastery wasn’t attained; (2) at second cycle, the average of the students’ score obtained within the learning achievement test was 82,10 of an ideal score 100 with standard deviation 10,486 in which 28 of 31 students or 90,3% satisfied the individual mastery which showed that the classical mastery was attained; (3) for quality of process it covered three indicators: a) from first cycle to second cycle, in terms of student activity is seen that students are increasingly active in the learning process, b) motivation of students is also increasing every meeting of the cycle I to cycle II, c) In terms of student interest as seen from two aspects, namely affective and cognitive development has also increased. Base on research which was conducted, it can be conclude that quality of learning both quality of result and quality of process increase through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach with cooperative learning setting Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) type.
INTRODUCTION
A. Background
Mathematics as one of the core subjects in school plays an important role in the mastery of science and technology. This is because mathematics is a means thinking logical, symmetrical and critical. Based on the above description, the existence of mathematics is needed so that further effort is how the mathematics that can be learned, known and understood until it can be applied by everyone in daily life. One characteristic of mathematics has an abstract object of study. Characteristic of abstract causes many students experience difficulties that could affect the quality of learning mathematics.
The quality of learning includes quality of process and quality of results (Asti, 2007). Improving the quality of process can be observed from the increased interest, motivation and activity of students in each learning (Paduppai, 2004: 188).
Conditions of mathematics instruction that have been developed experienced by schools both primary and secondary education, including on SMP Negeri 1 Bulukumba especially class VII.4. Data of final test results odd semester academic year 2010/2011 after which averaged with mastery learning outcomes on an individual basis only 9 from 31 students.
One of the mathematics learning which oriented mathematize of everyday experience and apply mathematics in daily life is Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach.
One of the learning models that support this realistic approach is cooperative learning models. Cooperative learning models over placing students as subjects in the learning process, so that teachers more act as facilitators and provide the opportunity for students to interact with each other in completing the tasks it faces (Suradi, 2003).
One of the types of cooperative learning models is TAI (Team Assisted Individualization). TAI method can easily be used in mathematics class, and it combines cooperative goals and tasks with a high degree of individual accountability (Slavin and Cooper 1999). This method was used because it has simple procedures that are easy to understand, remember, and apply. In adaptation to individuals, TAI adapts to students’ individual needs. (Tarim, 2007)
Based on the description above, researcher feel need to conduct classroom action research. Therefore, the author is motivated to conduct research under the title “Improving the Quality of Learning through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) with Cooperative Learning setting type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) at topic of Quadrilaterals and Triangle on grade VII Junior High School 1 Bulukumba“.
B. Research Problem
1. Main Problem to solve
Problems found on the grade VII.4 Junior High School 1 Bulukumba is the quality of student’s mathematics learning is still lack or too low and Students have difficulties in applying mathematics to real life situations.
2. Statement of the problem
The statement of the problem in this study is “Does RME approach with cooperative learning setting type (TAI) can improve the quality of learning mathematics at topic Quadrilaterals on Grade VII.4 Junior High School 1 Bulukumba
3. Alternatives of problem solving
Problems in the class VII.4 Junior High School 1 BULUKMBA above will be solved through RME-based teaching and learning of mathematics with Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) setting.
C. Objectives of Study
From the formulation of the problem above, so as the objectives of this research is to improve the quality of learning mathematics at topic Quadrilaterals and triangle through RME approach with TAI setting.
D. Significance of study
a. For students
Expected to raise students’ awareness in order to better understand mathematical concepts in depth and attract more motivated students to learn mathematics in order to increase its studying result and can interact with his friends in doing a problem.
b. For teachers
The results of this study, can be used as consideration in the innovation of learning mathematics in the classroom so that they can develop skills in teaching professionalism
LITERATURE REVIEW
- Quality of learning can be interpreted as a process and product quality of learning as an effort to organize environment that give feel for the program of learn to grow and develop optimally.
- Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.
- Realistic Mathematics Education. One of the mathematics learning which oriented mathematize of experience in everyday and apply mathematics in daily life
- Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) is combines cooperative goals and tasks with a high degree of individual accountability
- Motivation is the overall encourage force within student that causes learning activities which ensure the continuity of learning activities and which gives direction on learning activities, so that the desired destination by studying the subject that can be achieved.
- Interest is tendency to stay attentive and enjoy some activities in learning.
RESEARCH METHOD
A. Type of Study
This study is a Classroom Action Research that was conducted in two cycles. The action will take in this study is application of Realistic Mathematics Education approach with cooperative learning setting type TAI with stages of planning, implementing action, observation, and reflection.
B. Locus of study
This research was conducted in Junior High School 1 Bulukumba
C. Subject of study
The study was conducted with the subject from students of grade VII.4 Junior High School 1 Bulukumba which consist of 31 students. This research was conducted on even semester of academic year 2010/2011.
D. Factor Investigations
Factors, investigated in this study are:
1) Input factor, by do the start up observation in Junior High School 1 Bulukumba
2) Process factor, implementation the learning through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach with TAI setting every cycle in classroom.
3) Output factor, with see the completeness of students achievement at every end cycle after applied the learning through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach with TAI setting also see result of observation.
E. Procedures of Implementation
The research is in the form of classroom action research was conducted in two cycles. Each cycle was conducted according to the design cycle to be achieved. The both cycle is a series of interrelated activities which means that the implementation of the second cycle continuation of the first cycle. Cycle I was conducted during four meetings and one meeting for the implementation of the final test cycle I. Cycle II was also will be conducted in four meetings plus one meeting to implement the final test cycle II.
Overview cycle I
a. Planning stage
Before arranged the research to be done activity as follows:
1) Beating out the curriculum of grade seventh Junior High School mathematics lesson which related to quadrilaterals.
2) Making lesson plane for each meeting
b. Stage of implementation measures
The steps was conducted in implementation the action is to present subject through a realistic approach with setting cooperative type TAI is students divided into several groups then given examples related to daily life
c. Stage of observation and evaluation
During the learning process lasts conducted observation of student activity, interest and motivation of students. Implementation of this observation is supported by the observer.
d. Reflection Phase
Results obtained from the observations are collected and analyzed, as well as evaluation.
Overview of the second cycle
This second cycle will last for four meetings. The steps are performed on the second cycle relatively similar to the planning and implementation in the first cycle by holding several improvements or additions in accordance with the truth that is found in the field.
F. Instrument of data collection
The instruments of data collection of this study are as follows:
- Observation format was used to see how far the liveliness of the students during the learning process when implementation of the action
- Questionnaire was used for data about students’ interest and response in abreast of learning through RME setting cooperative type TAI
- The test was used for data of student’s mathematics achievement.
G. Techniques of data Analysis
In this study, was used two kinds of data analysis, are qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. The data results of observation and classroom reflection data collected were analyzed by descriptive qualitative. While quantitative analysis is used to view the mathematics learning completeness is given.
H. Indicators Achievement
Indicator of success in this study is the increased quality of learning that can be viewed from two aspects of quality of processes and quality of results. In terms quality of process it can be seen from the increased interest, motivation and activity of students in the learning process that includes physical activity, mental and social. Increased the interest and motivation can be seen from the observation which give to students. Students are said have motivation when fill both cognitive aspect and affective aspect.
In terms quality of results it can be seen from the increasing mastery of student learning. Students are said complete the study when obtaining a minimum score of 72% of the ideal score and classical complete when 85% students from all students complete the study.
RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Description of Research Results
1. Cycle I
a. Description the results obtained after the Implementation of Action.
After the implementation of the action taken in the first cycle, and then obtained student learning achievement in the following.
Tables 4.1 Statistical of student’s achievement on the first cycle as a whole after the implementation of action learning
Statistics | Score |
Respondent
Score maximum Score Minimum Mean Modus Median Range Standard Deviation Skewness Variance |
31
100 35 73,32 99 75 65 17,775 -,102 315.959 |
If the test cycle I analyzed the percentage of mastery learning student in Junior High School 1 Bulukumba grade VII.4 can be seen in the following table:
Table 4.2 Description exhaustiveness Student Results in classical Class VII.4 Junior High School 1 Bulukumba in Cycle I
Score Percentage | Category | Frequency | Percentage (%) |
0 % – 71%
72% – 100% |
Not Complete
Complete |
11
20 |
35,5%
64,5% |
b. Observations Result of Learning Processes
1. Active Students
At the first meeting, students don’t do unit tests on an individually. At the third and fourth meeting is self-arising awareness of each student to take units tests in their own although the increase is not significant. Students who double checks his friend’s answers appear at the first meeting are still confused what they should do. At the second meeting until the fourth meeting students who perform checks already familiar with their duties, they check the work of his friend though still annoying friend who was working on unit tests.
2. Student Motivation
a) Increasing students’ attention to the explanation of teachers increased although not significantly.
b) The emergence of enthusiastic students, who want to know more about the subject being studied
c) The involvement of students in teaching and learning mathematics is increasing.
d) The emergence of the seriousness of the students in learning mathematics in which students who correctly answer practice questions that are given more and more
3. Student Interests
a) Cognitive Aspects
At the first meeting of the first cycle is still not a lot of students who pay attention to learning, many students who are not active in the group. Curiosity of students is still less, is marked by enthusiastic students in asking about the learning materials are lacking. At the fourth meeting of curiosity pupils more increase, is characterized by the more questions asked of students.
b) Affective Aspects
At the first meeting student environment less pleasant, because the division of groups of students are still noisy. There are many students who perform other activities and less active resulting in the classroom atmosphere is less fun. But in the next meeting until the end of the first cycle in the classroom environment more pleasant, indicate the interaction between teachers and students, so that conditions of class become quite active and quite fun.
b. Reflection
In general, the student enjoys and looks quite interested and motivated in mathematics lessons with a realistic approach, because the material to students always presented are related to real situations in daily life. Also, by setting the working group TAI type used to make them to exchange ideas so that learning mathematics can be done with a relaxed, enjoyable, and meaningful even if in the first cycle is still there are some students who passive.
c. Decision
Because mastery learning students as well as interest, motivation and activity of students have not shown that optimal results then this is the reference to continue the implementation of actions to Cycle II to seek improvement through Realistic approach through group work setting type TAI with more encouraging students to be more active in teaching and learning process.
2. Cycle II
a. Description of Results Obtained after the Implementation Actions
After the implementation of the action taken on the second cycle, students’ learning results are obtained as follows:
Table 4.3 Statistical of students on the second cycle as a whole after the implementation of action learning
Statistics | Score |
Respondent
Score maximum Score Minimum Mean Modus Median Range Standard Deviation Skewness Variance |
31
100 58 82,10 80 80 42 10,486 -,032 109.957 |
If test results are analyzed, the percentage of second cycle mastery learning student Junior High School 1 Bulukumba VII.4 can be seen in the following table:
Table 4.4 Description exhaustiveness Student Achievement in classical Class VII.4 Junior High School 1 Bulukumba in Cycle I
Percentage Score | Category | Frequency | Percentage (%) |
0 % – 71%
72% – 100% |
Not Complete
Complete |
3
28 |
9,7%
90,3% |
From the table 4.4 above we can see that 90.3% students or 28 students included in the category and 9.7% completion students are included in the category no means exhaustive, there are 3 students in need of repair. This shows that the results of research conducted by researchers from the cycle I have a very significant increase in Cycle II.
b. Observations of Learning Processes
1. Active Students
At the beginning of the meeting on the second cycle, activity of students has been good enough. Many students ask the teacher about the topic and the average student was able to give examples of the material in daily life. Likewise at a second meeting until the end of the meeting on the second cycle is greatly increased.
This second cycle students taking the units test individually at every meeting, while students are in charge of checking the answer to his friend is doing its job properly. Compared with cycle I, in this second cycle the activity / active students in the learning process much improved. Students compete to comment on the answers of other groups and students are also vying to make inferences about the material already learned.
2. Student Motivation
a) Increasing students’ attention to the explanation of teachers has increased from cycle I to cycle II.
b) Enthusiastic students who want to know more about the subject being studied is also increasing
c) The involvement of students in teaching and learning mathematics is increasing.
d) Students can link learning content with which he is doing or thinking in dayli life also increased from cycle I to cycle II.
e) Enthusiastic students in doing worksheet increases.
f) In the first cycle students have 2-3 people who can demonstrate the benefits of learning materials for some of his friends.
g) The emergence of the seriousness of the students in learning mathematics in which students who correctly answer practice questions that are given more and more and increases from cycle I to cycle II.
3. Student Interests
a) Cognitive Aspects
At the first meeting of the second cycle has increased students’ attention on learning, as well as in the second meeting until the end of a meeting in the second cycle is increasing. Curiosity of students is very high, is marked by enthusiastic students ask questions about material in the learning higher.
Students also been active in the group and pay attention to things that are delivered by teachers in this case is researchers. Information needs of students will also greatly improved, marked by the increasing number of students who are able to explain the benefits of learning materials with daily life.
b) Affective Aspects
At the first meeting of the first cycle students are less pleasant environment, due to the division of groups of students are still noisy. In this second cycle students’ environment has become conducive and comfortable. Students who perform other activities had gone down and down until the end of this second cycle. Students are more enthusiastic in participating in learning. Interaction between teachers and students is also increasing, so the condition of the class became very active and very enjoyable.
c. Reflection
In general, students liked and looked very interested and motivated in math by applying RME approach to setting cooperative learning TAI type. At the end of this Cycle II implemented the final test. In doing so, they demonstrate readiness in the test. This can be seen when the questions they are distributed fairly quiet and they did with gusto even though there are those who find it difficult because they do not learn. Besides the activities push away the task of friend is no longer because they were given more emphasis to the students as well as to tighten supervision.
d. Decision
Of the two cycles that have been implemented by using RME approach with setting cooperative learning TAI type obtained the following results:
1) Active, interest and motivation of students is increasing
2) The completeness of students studying mathematics has increased significantly.
B. Discussion of Research Results
Increase in the average result of learning mathematics from Cycle I to Cycle II, which is 73.32 in the first cycle increased to 82.10 in the second cycle. skewness from cycle I to cycle II was also negatively skewed indicating that many students who earn high grades. In addition to the standard deviation and variance decreased from cycle I to cycle II show that learning through RME approach with cooperative learning setting type TAI which done to make students become more homogeneous.
In terms of completeness of individuals also increased where the number of students who did not complete the study in cycle I and be completed in Cycle II, as many as 9 people, or an increase of 29.03%. The number of students who completed their study results in cycle I and cycle II remains fully in as many as 19 people or 61.29%.
From the results of the qualitative analysis found that the quality of the learning process by setting the RME approach with cooperative learning setting TAI type of cycle I to cycle II is also greatly improved. In terms of student activity is seen that students are increasingly active in the learning process. The existence of the driving factors for students learning mathematics among to get a high score both groups and individuals so that students are very enthusiastic in learning mathematics, as well as more attention to the lesson.
In terms of student interest as seen from two aspects, namely affective and cognitive development has also increased. Viewed from the aspect of cognitive, attention and curiosity of students from cycle I to cycle II greatly increased is evident from the increasing number of students who ask about math. Viewed from the affective aspect is meant learning environment of students. Interaction between students and teachers are also on the cycle I to cycle II increased the number of students which demonstrated respond or questions in the classroom learning so that the condition becomes very active and very enjoyable.
With the increasing level of activity, motivation and student interest in teaching and learning are also accompanied by an increase in the completeness of study or in other words, quality process and quality of results from cycle I to cycle II, it can be said that learning through RME approach with cooperative learning setting TAI type can improve the quality of learning mathematics.
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. CONCLUSION
Based on the results of research and discussions that have been raised can be concluded as follows:
- The quality of student learning achievement of mathematics at VII4 class Junior High School 1 Bulukumba after through the RME approach with cooperative learning setting TAI type has increased.
- RME approach with cooperative learning setting TAI type can improve the quality of the learning process graders VII4 Junior High School 1 Bulukumba. It can be seen from the increased activity, motivation and student interest in abreast of the learning process in class.
B. SUGGESTIONS
- RME approach with cooperative learning setting type TAI can be presented as one alternative in implementing the learning of mathematics in schools.
- Recommended to next researchers to further develop this research in large scale, especially in the exhaustiveness student learning both individually and in the classical style.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arends, Richard I. 2001. Lerning to Teach. Fifth Edition. Mc Graw Hill: Central Connecticut State University
Asti. 2007. Peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran matematika melalui pendekatan realistic dengan setting kerja kelompok pada siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Makassar. Skripsi. Tidak diterbitkan. Makassar : Universitas Negeri Makassar
Bustang. 2010. Pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran matematika berbahasa inggris berbasis realistik pada smp rintisan sekolah bertaraf internasional. Skripsi. Tidak diterbitkan. Makassar : Universitas Negeri Makassar.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2005. Kamus besar bahasa Indonesia, Jakarta: Balai pustaka
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2009. Belajar Untuk Masa Depanku:Kebijakan Teknis Direktorat PSMP 2009. Jakarta: Depdiknas.
Freudenthal, H. 1991. Revisiting Mathematics Education. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gravemeijer, K.P.E. (1994). Developing Realistic Mathematics Education. Utrecht: CD-ß Press / Freudenthal Institute.
Hamalik, O. 2005. Kurikulum dan pembelajaran. Jakarta : Bumi aksara
Hudoyo, Herman. 1990. Strategi mengajar belajar matematika. Malang: IKIP malang.
Kagan, Spencer. 1994. Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing. www.KaganOnline.com
Kersaint, G., Thompson, D. R., & Petkova, M. 2009. Teaching Mathematics to English Language Learners. New York: Routledge.
Mulyasa. 2002. Kurikulum berbasis kompetensi konsep, karakteristik dan Implementasi. Bansung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya
Paduppai, darwing. 2004. Peningkatan kualitas proses dan hasil belajar matematika melalui gaya pembelajaran kognitif siswa. Eksponen Jurnal pendidikan matematika dan matematika. Jurusan matematika FMIPA UNM Makassar
Sardiman A.M. 1992. Interaksi dan motivasi belajar mengejar, pedoman bagi guru dan calon guru. Jakarta : rajawali pers
Slavin, Robert E. 2008. Cooperatif Learning. Teori, riset dan praktik. Bandung:Nusa Media.
Sidi, I. D. 2001. Menuju Masyarakat Belajar. Jakarta: Paramadina.
Soedjadi. 2000. Kiat Pendidikan Matematika di Indonesia. Jakarta: Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.
Streefland, L. 1991. Realistic Mathematics Education in Primary School: On The Occasion of The Opening of The Freudenthal Institute. Utrecht: CD-β Press, Center for Science and Mathematics Education, Freudenthal Institute, Utrecht University.
Suherman, erman. Dkk. 2003. Strategi pembelajaran matematika kontemporer. Bandung: JICA
Suradi. 2003. Profil aktifitas guru dalam pembelajaran matematika secara kooperatif. Eksponen jurnal pendidikan matematika dan matematika jurusan matematika. FMIPA UNM Makassar.
Suyitno, Amin. 2004. Dasar-dasar dan Proses Pembelajaran Matematika I. Semarang: FMIPA UNNES.
Tarim, Kamuran. 2007. The effect of cooperative learning on Turkish elementary student’s mathematics achievement and attitude towards mathematics using TAI and STAD methods. Springer.
Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. 1998. Realistic Mathematics Education, Work in Progress. Paper based on NORMA-lecture, held in Kristiansand, Norway on 5-9 June 1998.
Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. 2000. Mathematics Education in the Netherlands: A Guided Tour. Freudenthal Institute CD-Room for ICME9. Utrecht: Utrecht University.
Widdiharto, Rachmadi. 2006. Model-model Pembelajaran Matematika SMP. Yogyakarta: PPPG Matematika.
Wikipedia. Cooperative Learning. Diakses tanggal 16 february 2011