Ahmad Amri Amiruddin
This study was a type of Research and Development. The Purposes of this study were to generate Learning Media Based on ICT with Cooperative Learning Model type STAD on the topics of Cubes and Cuboids. The learning packages consist of (1) Student Book, (2) Worksheet, and (3) Lesson Plan. This research was implemented in class VIIIBL SMP Negeri 8 Makassar at 2011/2012 in even semester with the number of students as many as 37 students. The method used in this research was a modification and adaptation of the Four-D model (Thiagarajan, 1974), which includes four phases, namely; define, design, develop and disseminate. After validation and revision conducted as many as 2 times, the Learning Media based on ICT with cooperative learning model type STAD are categorized in valid and feasible. The results of limited trial shows that: (1) Average students’ achievement is of 80,08 from the ideal score of 100 with the deviation standards of 6,59; (2) utilizing of the learning media based on ICT with cooperative learning model type STAD make the students more active in the learning process; (3) students that mastery learning are of 33 from 37 students (89,18%); (4) students reaction towards the learning media of mathematics with cooperative learning model type STAD with the student book and the worksheet are positive; (5) teachers can manage the learning by using cooperative learning model type STAD. Based on the trial results of the media and several packages in above, the Learning Media based on ICT with cooperative learning model type STAD fulfill the criteria of Valid, effective and practice.
Keyword: Developing, the Media, ICT, Cooperative type STAD
By realizing the development of advanced technology, it motivates us to be ready to take a part in the global development. Indonesia has been involved in the urgent moment. There will be free movement of workers (free involvement of people) among countries. At present WTO (World Trade Organization) has set up 40 professions that will freely open to all nations. Several types of professions are grouped into 6 groups which include: lawyers, accountants, professional services, personal computer services, and medicine services.
The current technological development has been evident in many sectors of life. Technological development encouraging people to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness by utilizing advances in Information Technology and Communications is almost every aspect of life. One of the important technologies to develope at this time is the computer/laptop, because the computer/laptop can be used as a tool to present information and can be utilized in various fields, for example, companies, banks, offices, as well as in education. According to M. Langeveld (Rubiyanto dkk, 2003:20) guiding the child’s education is a human activity leading to maturity and independence.
According to Ofsted (2002b), by 2002 only one-quarter of schools were putting ICT into good use in teaching mathematics. The authors further claimed that ‘only a small proportion of departments have reached the point where they can evaluate critically their use of ICT and decide where it most benefits learning in mathematics’ (p. 9). However, there has been a steep and rapid increase in home use of ICT. In addition, the needs of industry have been changing rapidly. This has resulted in a tension between student expectations and current mathematics lessons. There is a continuing need for professional development given the pace of change in ICT.
Syaiful Bahri (1995:136) explains that the lack of clarity in teaching and learning materials delivered can be helped by presenting the media as an intermediary. The complexity of teaching materials can be simplified through the use of media. Media can represent teachers who are less able to say something through words or sentences.
Learning media based on ICT are not only as a tool, but they improve the student achievement. The author tries to provide an alternative for teachers and prospective teachers who will be involved directly in the real world of education. It is, the use of Learning media based on ICT using Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 and some of multimedia software in helping them deliver the materials and make them more attractive, so that students can understand the materials and can improve their learning.
As component of learning media, one benefit of computer for teachers are to be used as a tool in preparing to teach materials and in the learning process itself. Therefore, it should be that mathematics teachers know the benefits of computer in teaching and learning and be able to use them in teaching and learning.Efforts to develop Learning media based on ICT are affecting student learning. With the help of the interesting media, students will be easier to understand and this will positively impact student achievement, and with the use of the media it can help the students, who do not like to study materials delivered. Hopefully, with the help of these learning media it will provide a convenience for the students and also can motivate students, especially students in class VIII BL SMP Negeri 8 Makassar. Seeing the condition of Class VIII BL SMP Negeri 8 Makassar, it has adequate learning tools with multimedia, but the students’ motivation to learn mathematics is low due to lack of innovation in learning mathematics, namely the use of existing LCD Projector.
Based on these facts, we need learning media based on ICT design by using several programs (computer applications) which will be loaded all into Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 and become a flash player; so that software will have many advantages in its use, notably in delivery of the subject matter for students of class VIII BL, especially in the cubes and cuboids problem that students are more interested in learning the material. Another advantage of graphics, animations, and sounds is their appealing to students. Learning media based on ICT need to be developed in order to be a valid, practical and effective in a medium of learning. Therefore, the author conducted research entitled: “Developing learning media based on ICT with cooperative learning Model type STAD on Grade VIII at SMP Negeri 8 Makassar.”
B. LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Developing Learning Media
1) Meaning of Learning Media
Media is the plural of word “medium” which comes from the Latin meaning is “between.” Medium terms can be interpreted as everything that mediates or conveys information from the sender to the receiver of the message. Media is a tool that have the function to deliver the message (Bovee, 1997).
According to Miarso, learning media is anything used to deliver messages and to stimulating thoughts, feelings, concerns, and the willingness of students, so they are an intentional learning process, aiming and control (Miarso, 2004: 457-458). Purnomo (1996), that the media is anything can be used to distribute messages. Learning is a process of communication which is the source of the message, the recipient of the message, and messages, which is learning materials.
2) The Role and Function of Learning Media
Generally, the benefit of media in the learning process is to facilitate interaction between teachers and students, so that learning activities will be more effective and efficient, but more specifically, there are some benefits in more detail. Kemp and Dayton (Suriyanti in, 2005) identify some benefits of the media in learning, that is:
1) The delivery of course material can be homogenized,
2) The learning process becomes clearer and interesting,
3) The process of learning becomes more interactive,
4) Efficiency in time and effort,
5) Improve the quality of student learning outcomes,
6) Media enable the learning process be done anywhere and anytime,
7) Media can develop students’ positive attitude toward learning, and.
8) Changing the role of teachers towards a more positive and productive. In addition:
9) Media may indirectly be used as a scenario, that directs the course of teaching and learning process as planned, and
10) Teaching materials can be prepared in advance so it can be more tailored to the learning objectives.
3) Criteria of Learning Media and a Good Learning
A learning media and the learning said well if it meets the following criteria:
- Media present the information relevant to the objectives and learning materials which will be held.
- Accordance with the characteristics of the class, including the number of students.
- Accordance with teaching and learning activities is designed.
- According with the venue for teaching and learning, whether in a small room, large room, or outdoors.
- Contain information that can lead to an interactive learning process and not vice versa, it presents the whole matter to be taught.
- Perform simple and brief, but clear understanding rather than just making the students more confused.
- Should be operated solely by the teacher or service personnel who are able to operate it.
- Supported by the availability of facilities and infrastructure such as electrical power for operation.
- The costs required for the procurement, operation and maintenance of the scheme is still in the school budget.
C. RESEARCH METHODS
This study is type of Research and development that research oriented to development of a product, development process are carefully described, and the product obtained, than evaluated. The desired product in this study are to generate Learning Media Based on ICT with Cooperative Learning Model type STAD , based on the learning packages which consists of (1) Student Books, (2) Worksheet, and (3) Lesson Plan. This research implemented in SMP Negeri 8 Makassar and the subject of research is students of a class VIII BL in number as many as 37 students. This research implemented an even semester academic year 2011/2012, with three phases, namely:
1. Preparation Phase
Reviewing curriculum classes VIIIBL in the second semester for the learning mathematics. Developing learning Packages consist of student books (BS), Worksheet (LKS), and Lesson Plan (RPP), of the learning Package, developed mathematics instructional using Learning Media Based on ICT. Make the observation sheet to observe students’ activities, teacher activities, and classroom management. Create a questionnaire to evaluate the response of students and teachers about learning media developed using Learning Media Based on ICT.
2. Implementation Phase
Divide stundents into several groups. Implement the learning of mathematics with the help of instructional media developed using Learning Media Based on ICT. During the learning process was observed ongoing activities of students, and teachers’ ability to manage the learning done by one observer.
3. Analysis Data Phase
Activities at this stage to analyze the data acquired from the implementation phase. The data will be analyzed is the student learning outcome data, data and observations of student activity teacher activities, observations and data management of learning.
D. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. Students’ Learning Outcomes
Table 4.12 Statistics Score of Mathematics Learning Outcomes
|Total of Students’ Complete||33|
|Total of students’ not complete||4|
Table 4.13 Frequency Distribution and Score Presentation of Mathematics Learning Outcomes in the Class VIII BL SMP Negeri 8 Makassar in the learning outcomes
|1||0 – 34||Very Low||0||0,00|
|2||35 – 54||Low||0||0,00|
|3||55 – 64||Medium||1||2,70|
|4||65 – 84||High||27||72,97|
|5||85 – 100||Very High||9||24,32|
2. Data from Observation Result of Student Activity
Table 4.14 Student Activity during Learning Activities
|Persentase Waktu Rata-rata Jenis Aktivitas Siswa|
|Student Activities Category||1st Meeting||2nd Meeting||3rd Meeting||4th Meeting||5th Meeting||Mean (%)||Tolerance interval of PWI (%)|
|Reading worksheets, learning media or student book||12||11||15||16||11||13||4 – 14|
|Actively involved in the task||17||17||16||13||19||16||11 – 21|
|Active in discussion with a friend||28||27||25||21||31||25||17 – 27|
|Note what the friend presented||3||11||3||5||4||5||6 – 16|
|Ask the questions to your friends / teachers||12||8||3||11||9||9||4 – 14|
|Answer / response to question friends / teachers||11||16||15||12||11||14||6 – 16|
|providing information to friend who needs explanation||15||11||24||21||15||18||17 – 27|
|Outside activities of the task||3||0||0||0||1||1||0 – 5|
3. Student responses to learning activities that use the Learning media based on ICT
Table 4.15 Student responses to learning activities
|No||Criteria||Very Agree||Agree||Doubt||Disagree||Very Disagree|
|1||The program / learning media as a tool for mathematics learning on the subject of cubes and cuboids||43,2 %||51,4 %||5,4 %||0 %||0 %|
|2||With program / learning media, students will easier to learn the material on the subject of cubes and cuboids||40,5 %||51,4 %||8,1 %||0 %||0 %|
|3||After using the program / learning media, the students become know more about the subject matter on the cubes and cuboids||40,5 %||43,2 %||16,2 %||0 %||0 %|
|4||In the use of program / learning media is no difficulty||48,6 %||43,2 %||8,1 %||0 %||0 %|
|5||The material is clearly presented and easy to follow||35,1 %||45,9 %||18,9 %||0 %||0 %|
|6||programs view an interactive and engaging||48,6 %||43,2 %||8,1 %||0 %||0 %|
4. Data from Observation Result of Teacher Activity
Table 4.16 Data from Observation Result of Teacher Activity
|Percentage from the average time of Teacher Activities|
|Categories of Teacher Activity||Pertemuan I||Pertemuan II||Pertemuan III||Pertemuan IV||Pertemuan V||Rata-rata (%)||Interval Toleransi PWI (%)|
|Informing the problem to be done together in groups||7||7||7||7||7||7||2 – 12|
|Asks the students to do the work group by working together in groups||7||7||7||7||7||7||2 – 12|
|Give direction to students always in the task||7||7||7||13||7||8||2 – 12|
|Controlling and notice the group work||33||27||20||20||20||25||19 – 29|
|Guiding / give assistance to students in group activities||20||33||33||33||27||30||28 – 38|
|Asking the question that stimulate students’ thinking (questions that bring more information)||7||13||13||13||20||13||6 – 16|
|Provide the feedback||13||7||13||7||13||10||6 – 16|
|the activities carried out of tasks such as sitting quietly in a chair, reading a newspaper, out of the classroom, and etc.||7||0||0||0||0||2||0 – 5|
5. The Data from Observation Result from Management of Cooperative Learning Using Mathematics Learning media based on ICT
Tabel 4.17 Management of Cooperative Learning Using Mathematics Learning media based on ICT
|Aspect Observation||The Meeting||KG|
|I. LEARNING ACTIVITY|
|A. FIRST ACTIVIY|
|Phase 1 : Presents the objectives and motivate students|
|Teachers begin the learning by requiring students to prepare in the classical style. Students pray and say hello to the teacher.||2||4||3||4||4||3,40|
|Teachers prepare the students for learning and the necessary facilities.||4||3||3||4||4||3,60|
|Teachers present the objectives the learning materials (materials in the form the learning Media file).||4||4||3||4||4||3,80|
|Teachers do apperception by linking the previous material (knowing the types of 3D rectangular).||3||3||4||4||4||3,60|
|Aspect Observation||The Meeting||KG|
|Teachers motivate the students by giving an explanation of the importance of studying these materials.||4||4||4||4||4||4,00|
|Teachers explain the ways to cooperate in group.||4||4||4||4||4||4,00|
|B. CORE ACTIVITY|
|Phase 2 : Presenting the Information or Learning Materials|
|Teachers direct the Students to notice media that has been the learning on the computer / laptop.||4||4||4||4||3||3,80|
|Teachers explain the learning material based on the appearance of the existing Software Learning Media.||3||4||4||4||4||3,80|
|Teachers communicate the information about the elements of cubes and cuboids.||3||3||4||4||4||3,60|
|Fase 3 : Organize the students into learning groups|
|Teachers organizes the students into several groups, each group consisted of four people and each group facing one computer / laptop that has been given an learning media Software in the form of flash the learning||3||3||4||4||3||3,40|
|Teachers give the every group of and students participate actively in each the learning gorksheetroup activities.||4||4||4||4||4||4,00|
|Teachers directing the stundent in order to finish the worksheet with team work and individual||4||4||4||4||4||4,00|
|Phase 4 : Guiding The group, Work, and Learning|
|Teachers provide the guidance so that students always in the task and work in a group||3||4||4||4||4||3,80|
|Teachers look closely the working groups.||3||3||4||4||3||3,40|
|Teachers check the understanding group work and provide feedback to the students if someone asks.||4||3||4||4||4||3,80|
|Phase 5 : Evaluation|
|Teachers facilitate the students to present group work.||4||4||4||4||4||4,00|
|Teachers direct the students to discussion in determining the answers, if there is a difference of opinion between groups||3||4||4||4||4||3,80|
|Aspect Observation||The Meeting||KG|
|Fase 6 : Give an Appreciation|
|Teachers collect the worksheet in every group||4||3||4||4||4||3,80|
|Teachers give the feedback and reinforcement in oral form, writings, beck, either or prize about successing of the student||3||4||4||4||4||3,80|
|Teachers facilitate the students to reflect in order to acquire the learning experience that has been conducted||4||4||4||4||3||3,80|
|Teachers together with the students themselves make a summary / conclusion of the lesson||4||4||4||4||4||4,00|
|Teachers give homework (PR) of the questions “Developing Competencies through Training” in the books that have not been resolved / discussed in class.||4||3||4||4||4||3,80|
|II. SITUATION IN THE CLASS|
|students are enthusiastic||3||4||4||4||4||3,80|
|teachers are enthusiastic||4||4||4||4||4||4,00|
|Activities in accordance with the time allocation||3||3||4||3||4||3,40|
|Activities in accordance with the scenario in Lesson Plan||3||4||4||4||4||3,80|
Rem. Very High = 3,5 – 4
High = 2,5 – 3,5
Medium = 1,5 – 2,5
Low = under 1,5
Students’ Learning Outcomes
On the above table shows that learning outcomes of class VIII BL SMP Negeri 8 Makassar of mathematics, then gained an average score of 80.08 from the ideal score of 100 with a standard deviation of 6.59. The minimum score of the student is 62 and the maximum score of students is 90 with a range score of 28
The above table shows that of 37 students who take the learning outcomes there is a 0.00% of students included in the category of low and very low, 2.70% students are in the category of medium, 72.97% of students categorized as high, while students are into the category of very high is 24.32%. This indicates that students are gain a high of material presented by using the Learning media based on ICT.
The above table shows that the numbers of students who completed study or have reached completeness individuals are students who scores 72-100 as many as 33 people from 37 students, or about 89.18%. Thus the number of students who are not complete, that students are scores 0-71, as many as 4 out of 37 students, or about 10.81%. These data show that the classical completeness has been reached.
The Data from Observation Result of Student Activity
Based on the Table 4.14 above, it is known that all categories of students who observed the activities of PWI Tolerance Interval (%) specified. This means that, the achievement criteria of ideal time for the student activity discussed in Chapter III has been reached, which is 5 from the 9 categories have been fulfilled and the main requirement is actively engaged in the task, actively discussion with a friend, answer / respond to question friends / teachers, and providing information to friend who needs has been reached..
Student responses to learning activities that use the Learning media based on ICT
Based on defined criteria to declare that students have a positive response (very agree agree and agree) to the Learning media based on ICT are 50% of their members responded positively to at least 70% the amount of aspects stated, it can be concluded that the students have responded positively to the Mathematics Learning media based on ICT.
Data from Observation Result of Teacher Activity
The observation result of teacher activity can be seen in Appendix B. in Table 4:16, known that all categories of the teacher activity were observed fulfill PWI Tolerance Interval (%) specified. That is, the the criteria achievement of the ideal time of teacher activities that have been discussed in Chapter III is reached, is category of giving direction to students always in a group assignment, Controlling and notice the work group, Guiding / giving assistance to students in group activities, Asking the question that stimulate students’ thinking (questions that opening insights) and giving the feedback satisfied.
The Data from Observation Result from Management of Cooperative Learning Using Mathematics Learning media based on ICT
From the analysis shown in Table 4:17 in the above and based on criteria were used to decide that the ability of teachers manage the learning with cooperative learning model type STAD using Mathematics Learning Media based on ICT is the minimal value of KG are in the category of “high”, meaning the teacher performance can be retained. If KG was in the categories below minimum standards, then teachers should be improving their ability to look back at aspects such as lack. Then performed a re-examination of the ability of teachers manage the learning using learning media, and then analyzed again. So forth until satisfy a minimum value of KG are in high category, it can be concluded that the ability of teachers to manage the process of cooperative learning type STAD using Mathematics Learning Media based on ICT included in the category of very high, meaning the teacher performance can be retained.
F. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Developing process used to produce the learning media based on ICT with Cooperative Learning Model type STAD is a modification and adaptation of the four-D model (Thiagarajan, 1974), which includes four phases, namely Define–preliminary analysis, student analysis, concept analysis, task analysis and Specification of the Learning Objectives. Design–preparation of the test, media selection, format selection and preliminary design. Develop–experts’ opinion and judgment and the trial. – . After validation and revision conducted as many as 2 times, learning media that has been developed using the Learning Media based on ICT with cooperative learning model type STAD are categorized in valid and feasible for use. From the trial phase, it is known that the learning media of mathematics are developed by using the Learning Media based on ICT with cooperative learning model type STAD are categorized in effective.
- To teachers of mathematics are advised to use learning media based on ICT and the Packages of mathematics learning that results from this study as evaluated based on improvements to student learning outcomes in basic competencies tested.
- Learning media that has been generated should be tested at other schools.
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